Academic Catalog

Music

The degree Master of Music is offered by the School of Music with options in music education, performance, composition, theory, music history and literature, and accompanying.

Admission Requirements

  • Students must have earned an undergraduate baccalaureate degree in music or the equivalent as determined by the department.
  • The Graduate School’s requirements for admission.
  • Three letters of recommendation.
  • The music education options require an interview with music education faculty.
  • The performance and accompanying options require an audition on the student’s major instrument/voice. Please contact the coordinator of Graduate Studies for an audition time.
  • The option in orchestral, choral, and wind conducting require the applicant to successfully pass an interview and audition with the orchestra conducting faculty member and an audition on his/her particular applied instrument.

Applications are accepted on a rolling basis.

The student should consult with the coordinator of Graduate Studies in Music for additional information regarding the individualized nature of each option.

For the Voice Performance and Piano Accompanying options a proficiency equal to two semesters each of Italian, German, and French is required for completion of the Master of Music degree. There is no substitution for this requirement for the MM Voice Performance. Piano Accompanying degree program (only) may substitute Diction I and II for this requirement. For details on how to show language proficiency please contact the Graduate Coordinator for the School of Music.

After completion of all course work, the student must pass an examination covering the graduate program. This examination is individualized for each candidate’s unique program.

Composition Option

Music Core Courses – 8 credits (to be selected)

  • 7500:555 Advanced Conducting: Instrumental (2 credits)
  • 7500:556 Advanced Conducting: Choral (2 credits)
  • 7500:615 Musical Styles & Analysis I (Chant through Palestrina) (2 credits)
  • 7500:616 Musical Styles & Analysis II (Baroque through early Beethoven) (2 credits)
  • 7500:617 Musical Styles & Analysis III (Late Beethoven through Mahler/Strauss) (2 credits)

Major Required Courses – 21-23 credits

  • 7500:618 Musical Styles & Analysis IV (20th Century) (2 credits)
  • 7500:624 Music History Survey: Music Since 1900 (2 credits)
  • 7500:647 Masters Chamber Recital (1 credit)
  • 7500:674 Seminar in Music (must be Schenkerian Analysis) (2 credits)
  • 7500:699 Masters Thesis/Project (4-6 credits)
  • 7510:6— Ensemble (participation in two ensembles required) (2 credits)
  • 7520:642 Applied Composition (8 credits)

Additional Music Courses – 0 to 2 credits.

Graduate-level (music) courses, workshops, applied lessons (other than in composition) and/or advanced problems to be selected by the student and advisor.

Electives – 3 credits

To be selected by student and advisor, Areas include graduate-level courses in other disciplines, such as theatre arts, in which the student obtains permission of instructor, or 7520:642 Applied Composition.

Degree total: 34-36 credits

Music Education Option

Thesis Option – 32 credits

Required Music Education Core Courses – 13-15 credits

  • 7500:611 Foundations & Principles of Music Education (summer) (3 credits)
  • 7500:612 Practices & Trends in Music Education (fall) (3 credits)
  • 7500:614 Measurement & Evaluation in Music (spring) (3 credits)
  • 7500:699 Masters Thesis/Project (4-6 credits)

Additional Music/Education Courses

Select 17-19 credits with approval of music education and graduate advisors. Choices may include the following:

  • 7500:675 Seminar in Music Education (9 credits)
  • 7500:697 Advanced Problems in Music  (4 credits)
  • 7500:590 Workshop in Music (6 credits)
  • 7520:5—/6— Applied Music (8 credits)
  • 7510:6— Ensemble (2 credits)
  • 7500:5—/6— Other music courses (8 credits)
  • 5100:5—/6— Educational Foundations and Leadership (4 credits)
  • 5170:5—/6— General Administration (4 credits)
  • 55---:5—/6— Curricular and Instructional Studies (4 credits)
    or
  • 5500:780 Seminar: Curricular & Instructional Studies (1-3 credits)
    (Maximum of 4 credits of 5500:780 Seminar: Curricular & Instructional Studies)

Non-Thesis Option – 34 credits

Required Music Education Core Courses – 9 credits

  • 7500:611 Foundations & Principles of Music Education (summer) (3 credits)
  • 7500:612 Practices & Trends in Music Education (fall) (3 credits)
  • 7500:614 Measurement & Evaluation in Music (spring) (3 credits)

Additional Music/Education Courses

Select 25 credits with approval of music education and graduate advisors. Choices may include the following:

  • 7500:675 Seminar in Music Education (9 credits)
  • 7500:697 Advanced Problems in Music (4 credits)
  • 7500:590 Workshop in Music (6 credits)
  • 7520:5—/6— Applied Music (8 credits)
  • 7510:6— Ensemble (2 credits)
  • 7500:5—/6— Other music courses (8 credits)
  • 5100:5—/6— Educational Foundations and Leadership (4 credits)
  • 5170:5—/6— General Administration (4 credits)
  • 55---:5—/6— Curricular and Instructional Studies (4 credits)
    or
  • 5500:780 Seminar: Curricular & Instructional Studies (1-3 credits)
    (Maximum of 4 credits of 5500:780 Seminar: Curricular & Instructional Studies)

Music Education: Instrumental Option

Thesis Option – 32 credits

Required Music Education Core Courses – 13-15 credits

  • 7500:611 Foundations & Principles of Music Education (summer) (3 credits)
  • 7500:612 Practices & Trends in Music Education (fall) (3 credits)
  • 7500:614 Measurement & Evaluation in Music (spring) (3 credits)
  • 7500:699 Masters Thesis/Project (4-6 credits)
    (must be related to instrumental music education)

Additional Music/Education Courses

Select 17-19 credits with approval of music education and graduate advisors. A minimum of 14 credits must be related to instrumental music education. Choices may include the following:

  • 7500:675 Seminar in Music Education (9 credits)
  • 7500:697 Advanced Problems in Music  (4 credits)
  • 7500:590 Workshop in Music (6 credits)
  • 7520:5—/6— Applied Music (8 credits)
  • 7510:6— Ensemble (2 credits)
  • 7500:5—/6— Other music courses (8 credits)
  • 5100:5—/6— Educational Foundations and Leadership (4 credits)
  • 5170:5—/6— General Administration (4 credits)
  • 55---:5—/6— Curricular and Instructional Studies (4 credits)
    or
  • 5500:780 Seminar: Curricular & Instructional Studies (1-3 credits)
    (Maximum of 4 credits of 5500:780 Seminar: Curricular & Instructional Studies)

Non-Thesis Option – 34 credits

Required Music Education Core Courses – 9 credits

  • 7500:611 Foundations & Principles of Music Education (summer) (3 credits)
  • 7500:612 Practices & Trends in Music Education (fall) (3 credits)
  • 7500:614 Measurement & Evaluation in Music (spring) (3 credits)

Additional Music/Education Courses

Select 25 credits with approval of music education and graduate advisors. A minimum of 22 credits must be related to instrumental music education. Choices may include the following:

  • 7500:675 Seminar in Music Education (9 credits)
  • 7500:697 Advanced Problems in Music (4 credits)
  • 7500:590 Workshop in Music (6 credits)
  • 7520:5—/6— Applied Music (8 credits)
  • 7510:6— Ensemble (2 credits)
  • 7500:5—/6— Other music courses (8 credits)
  • 5100:5—/6— Educational Foundations and Leadership (4 credits)
  • 5170:5—/6— General Administration (4 credits)
  • 55---:5—/6— Curricular and Instructional Studies (4 credits)
    or
  • 5500:780 Seminar: Curricular & Instructional Studies (1-3 credits)
    (Maximum of 4 credits of 5500:780 Seminar: Curricular & Instructional Studies)

Music Education: Choral/General Music Option

Thesis Option – 32 credits

Required Music Education Core Courses – 13-15 credits

  • 7500:611 Foundations & Principles of Music Education (summer) (3 credits)
  • 7500:612 Practices & Trends in Music Education (fall) (3 credits)
  • 7500:614 Measurement & Evaluation in Music (spring) (3 credits)
  • 7500:699 Masters Thesis/Project (4-6 credits)
    (must be related to choral/general music education)

Additional Music/Education Courses

Select 17-19 credits with approval of music education and graduate advisors. A minimum of 14 credits must be related to choral/general music education. Choices may include the following:

  • 7500:675 Seminar in Music Education (9 credits)
  • 7500:697 Advanced Problems in Music  (4 credits)
  • 7500:590 Workshop in Music (6 credits)
  • 7520:5—/6— Applied Music (8 credits)
  • 7510:6— Ensemble (2 credits)
  • 7500:5—/6— Other music courses (8 credits)
  • 5100:5—/6— Educational Foundations and Leadership (4 credits)
  • 5170:5—/6— General Administration (4 credits)
  • 55---:5—/6— Curricular and Instructional Studies (4 credits)
    or
  • 5500:780 Seminar: Curricular & Instructional Studies (1-3 credits)
    (Maximum of 4 credits of 5500:780 Seminar: Curricular & Instructional Studies)

Non-Thesis Option – 34 credits

Required Music Education Core Courses – 9 credits

  • 7500:611 Foundations & Principles of Music Education (summer) (3 credits)
  • 7500:612 Practices & Trends in Music Education (fall) (3 credits)
  • 7500:614 Measurement & Evaluation in Music (spring) (3 credits)

Additional Music/Education Courses

Select 25 credits with approval of music education and graduate advisors. A minimum of 22 credits must be related to choral/general music education. Choices may include the following:

  • 7500:675 Seminar in Music Education (9 credits)
  • 7500:697 Advanced Problems in Music (4 credits)
  • 7500:590 Workshop in Music (6 credits)
  • 7520:5—/6— Applied Music (8 credits)
  • 7510:6— Ensemble (2 credits)
  • 7500:5—/6— Other music courses (8 credits)
  • 5100:5—/6— Educational Foundations and Leadership (4 credits)
  • 5170:5—/6— General Administration (4 credits)
  • 55---:5—/6— Curricular and Instructional Studies (4 credits)
    or
  • 5500:780 Seminar: Curricular & Instructional Studies (1-3 credits)
    (Maximum of 4 credits of 5500:780 Seminar: Curricular & Instructional Studies)

Music Technology Option

Music Core Courses – 6 credits (to be selected)

  • 7500:555 Advanced Conducting: Instrumental (2 credits)
  • 7500:556 Advanced Conducting: Choral (2 credits)
  • 7500:615 Musical Styles & Analysis I (2 credits)
  • 7500:616 Musical Styles & Analysis II (2 credits)
  • 7500:617 Musical Styles & Analysis III (2 credits)
  • 7500:621 Music History Survey: Middle Ages & Renaissance (2 credits)
  • 7500:622 Music History Survey: Baroque (2 credits)
  • 7500:623 Music History Survey: Classic & Romantic (2 credits)
  • 7500:624 Music History Survey: Music Since 1900 (2 credits)

Major Required Courses – 25 credits

  • 7500:553 Music Software Survey and Use (2 credits)
  • 7500:613 Instructional Programming in Music for Microcomputer (3 credits)
  • 7500:618 Musical Styles & Analysis IV (20th century) (2 credits)
  • 7500:627 Computer Studio Design (2 credits)
  • 7500:653 Electronic Music (3 credits)
  • 7500:699 Masters Thesis/Project (4 credits)
  • 7510:6__ Ensemble (participation in two ensembles sequences) (2 credits)
  • 7520:542 Composition (electronic music) (4 credits)
  • 7600:697 Graduate Research in Communication (3 credits)

Electives – 2 credits (selected by the student and advisor)

Degree total: 33 credits

Performance Option in Accompanying

Music Core Courses – 8 credits (to be selected)

  • 7500:555 Advanced Conducting: Instrumental  (2 credits)
  • 7500:556 Advanced Conducting: Choral  (2 credits)
  • 7500:615 Musical Styles & Analysis I (Chant through Palestrina)  (2 credits)
  • 7500:616 Musical Styles & Analysis II (Baroque through early Beethoven)  (2 credits)
  • 7500:617 Musical Styles & Analysis III (Late Beethoven through Mahler/Strauss)  (2 credits)
  • 7500:618 Musical Styles & Analysis IV (20th Century)  (2 credits)
  • 7500:621 Music History Survey: Middle Ages & Renaissance  (2 credits)
  • 7500:622 Music History Survey: Baroque  (2 credits)
  • 7500:623 Music History Survey: Classic & Romantic   (2 credits)
  • 7500:624 Music History Survey: Music Since 1900  (2 credits) 

Major Required Courses – 23-26 credits

  • 7500:633 Teaching & Literature: Piano & Harpsichord  (2 credits)
  • 7500:640 Advanced Accompanying I (1 credit)
  • 7500:641 Advanced Accompanying II (1 credit)
  • 7500:642 Advanced Accompanying III (1 credit)
  • 7500:643 Advanced Accompanying IV (1 credit)
  • 7500:666 Advanced Song Literature I  (2 credits)
  • 7500:698 Graduate Recital (to be completed in a minimum of two performance media)  (2 credits)
  • 7510:614 Keyboard Ensemble (participation in two ensembles required)* (2-4 credits)
  • 7510:618 Small Ensemble-Mixed  (2 credits)
  • 7520:6— Applied Music (piano, organ and/or harpsichord)  (8 credits)

Additional music courses – 2 to 3 credits

Electives – 2 credits

Areas may include graduate-level courses in other disciplines, such as theatre arts, for which the student obtains permission of instructor, or additional music courses, as determined by the student and advisor.

Graduate-level (music) courses, advanced problems, workshops and/or applied lessons, to be selected by the student and advisor.

No more than a total of 16 credits of 7520 courses may be applied to the degree.

All candidates for this degree must accompany a minimum of three solo ensemble recitals (instrumental and vocal). These can be done as part of 7500:697 Advanced Problems in Music.

Degree total: 33-36 credits

Performance Option in Winds, String, Percussion

Music Core Courses: 8 credits (to be selected)

  • 7500:555 Advanced Conducting: Instrumental (2 credits)
  • 7500:556 Advanced Conducting: Choral (2 credits)
  • 7500:615 Musical Styles & Analysis I (Chant through Palestrina) (2 credits)
  • 7500:616 Musical Styles & Analysis II (Baroque through early Beethoven) (2 credits)
  • 7500:617 Musical Styles & Analysis III (Late Beethoven through Mahler/Strauss) (2 credits)
  • 7500:621 Music History Survey: Middle Ages & Renaissance (2 credits)
  • 7500:622 Music History Survey: Baroque (2 credits)
  • 7500:623 Music History Survey: Classic & Romantic (2 credits)
  • 7500:624 Music History Survey: Music Since 1900 (2 credits)

Major Required Courses – 16-18 credits

  • 7500:618 Musical Styles & Analysis IV (20th Century)– (2 credits)
  • 7510:6— Ensemble (participation in two ensembles required)* (2-4 credits)
  • 7520:6— Applied Music (select appropriate instrument) (8 credits)

Select one of the following as appropriate to major instrument:

  • 7500:630 Teaching & Literature: Brass Instruments (2 credits)
  • 7500:631 Teaching & Literature: Woodwind Instruments (2 credits)
  • 7500:532 Teaching & Literature: Percussion Instruments (2 credits)
  • 7500:634 Teaching & Literature: String Instruments (2 credits)
  • 7500:698 Graduate Recital (2 credits)

Additional Music Courses – 6 credits

Graduate-level (music) workshops, applied lessons, advanced problems and/or courses to be selected by student and advisor.

Electives – 4 credits

Areas may include graduate-level courses in other disciplines, such as theatre arts, in which the student obtains permission of instructor, or additional music courses, as determined by the student and advisor.

No more than a total of 16 credits of 7520 courses may be applied to the degree.

Degree total: 34-36 credits

Performance Option in Voice

Music Core Courses: 8 credits (to be selected)

  • 7500:555 Advanced Conducting: Instrumental  (2 credits)
  • 7500:556 Advanced Conducting: Choral (2 credits)
  • 7500:615 Musical Styles & Analysis I (Chant through Palestrina) (2 credits)
  • 7500:616 Musical Styles & Analysis II (Baroque through early Beethoven) (2 credits)
  • 7500:617 Musical Styles & Analysis III (Late Beethoven through Mahler/Strauss) (2 credits)
  • 7500:621 Music History Survey: Middle Ages & Renaissance (2 credits)
  • 7500:622 Music History Survey: Baroque (2 credits)
  • 7500:623 Music History Survey: Classic & Romantic (2 credits)
  • 7500:624 Music History Survey: Music Since 19000 (2 credits)
  • 7500:604 Development of Opera (2 credits)

Major required courses – 20-22 credits

  • 7500:618 Musical Styles & Analysis IV (20th Century) (2 credits)
  • 7500:665 Vocal Pedagogy (2 credits)
  • 7500:666 Advanced Song Literature I (2 credits)
  • 7500:667 Advanced Song Literature II (2 credits)
  • 7500:698 Graduate Recital (2 credits)
  • 7510:6— Ensemble (participation in two ensembles required)* (2-4 credits)
  • 7520:624 Voice (8 credits)

Additional Music Courses – 2 credits (suggested minimum)

Graduate-level (music) courses, workshops, advanced problems and/or applied lessons, to be selected by student and advisor.

Electives – 4 credits

Areas may include graduate-level courses in other disciplines, such as theatre arts, in which the student obtains permission of instructor, or additional music courses, as determined by the student and advisor.

No more than a total of 16 credits of 7520 courses may be applied to the degree. 

Degree total: 34-36 credits

Performance Option in Keyboard

Music Core Courses: 8 credits (to be selected)

  • 7500:555 Advanced Conducting: Instrumental (2 credits)
  • 7500:556 Advanced Conducting: Choral (2 credits)
  • 7500:615 Musical Styles & Analysis I (Chant through Palestrina) (2 credits)
  • 7500:616 Musical Styles & Analysis II (Baroque through early Beethoven) (2 credits)
  • 7500:617 Musical Styles & Analysis III (Late Beethoven through Mahler/Strauss) (2 credits)
  • 7500:621 Music History Survey: Middle Ages & Renaissance (2 credits)
  • 7500:622 Music History Survey: Baroque (2 credits)
  • 7500:623 Music History Survey: Classic & Romantic (2 credits)
  • 7500:624 Music History Survey: Music Since 1900 (2 credits)

Major Required Courses – 18-21 credits

  • 7500:618 Musical Styles & Analysis IV (20th Century) (2 credits)
  • 7500:633 Teaching & Literature: Piano & Harpsichord (2 credits)
  • 7500:633 Teaching & Literature: Piano & Harpsichord (2 credits)
  • 7500:697 Advanced Problems in Music (2 credits)
  • 7500:698 Graduate Recitall (2 credits)
  • 7510:614 Keyboard Ensemble (participation in two ensembles required)* (2-4 credits)
  • 7520:6— Applied Music (piano, organ and/or harpsichord) (8 credits)

Additional Music Courses – 3 to 4 credits

Graduate-level (music) courses, advanced problems, workshops and/or applied lessons, to be selected by the student and advisor.

Electives – 4 credits

Areas may include graduate level courses in other disciplines, such as theatre arts, for which the student obtains permission of instructor, or additional music courses, as determined by the student and advisor.

It is recommended that each student’s graduate committee recommend the appropriate elective credits.

No more than a total of 16 credits of 7520 courses may be applied to the degree.

Degree total: 34-36 credits

Performance Option: Choral Conducting

Music Core Courses – 8 credits

  • 7500:615 Musical Styles & Analysis I (2 credits)
  • 7500:616 Musical Styles & Analysis II (2 credits)
  • 7500:617 Musical Styles & Analysis III (2 credits)
  • 7500:621 Music History Survey: Middle Ages & Renaissance (2 credits)
  • 7500:622 Music History Survey: Baroque (2 credits)
  • 7500:624 Music History Survey: Music Since 1900 (2 credits)

Major Required Courses – 24 credits

  • 7500:556 Advanced Conducting: Choral (2 credits)
  • 7500:570 Studies Choral Literature I: Medieval/Renaissance (Medieval/Renaissance) (2 credits)
  • 7500:571 Studies Choral Literature II: Baroque (Baroque) (2 credits)
  • 7500:572 Studies Choral Literature III: Classic/Romantic (Classic/Romantic)
  • 7500:573 Studies Choral Literature IV: 20th Century (20th Century) (2 credits)
  • 7500:675 Seminar in Music Education (2 credits)
  • 7500:697 Advanced Problems in Music (Choral Conducting) (4 credits)
  • 7500:698 Graduate Recital (2 credits)
  • 7510:620 Concert Choir-7510:621 University Singers* (2 credits)
  • 7520:524 Voice (4 credits)

Electives – 3 credits

Areas may include graduate-level courses in other disciplines, with permission of the instructor, or additional music courses other than ensembles.

No more than a total of 16 credits of 7520 courses may be applied to the degree.

Degree total: 36 credits

Performance Option: Orchestral Conducting

Music Core Courses – 8 credits

  • 7500:616 Musical Styles & Analysis II (2 credits)
  • 7500:617 Musical Styles & Analysis III (2 credits)
  • 7500:618 Musical Styles & Analysis IV (2 credits)
  • 7500:622 Music History Survey: Baroque (2 credits)
  • 7500:623 Music History Survey: Classic & Romantic (2 credits)
  • 7500:624 Music History Survey: Music Since 1900 (2 credits)

Major Required Courses – 29 credits

  • 7500:555 Advanced Conducting: Instrumental (2 credits) (course to be repeated for a total of four credits)
  • 7500:630 Teaching & Literature: Brass Instruments (2 credits)
  • 7500:631 Teaching & Literature: Woodwind Instruments (2 credits)
  • 7500:532 Teaching & Literature: Percussion Instruments (2 credits)
  • 7500:634 Teaching & Literature: String Instruments (2 credits)
  • 7500:675 Seminar in Music Education (3 credits)
  • 7500:698 Graduate Recital (Conducting) (2 credits)
  • 7510:620 Concert Choir* (4 credits)
  • 7520:6xx Applied Music (required) (8 credits)

Degree total: 37 credits

Performance Option: Wind Conducting

Music Core Courses – 8 credits (to be selected)

(four credits of theory and four credits of history)

  • 7500:616 Musical Styles & Analysis II (2 credits)
  • 7500:617 Musical Styles & Analysis III (2 credits)
  • 7500:618 Musical Styles & Analysis IV (2 credits)
  • 7500:622 Music History Survey: Baroque (2 credits)
  • 7500:623 Music History Survey: Classic & Romantic (2 credits)
  • 7500:624 Music History Survey: Music Since 1900 (2 credits)

Major Required Courses – 29 credits

  • 7500:555 Advanced Conducting: Instrumental (repeated for total of eight credits) (2 credits)
  • 7500:698 Graduate Recital (2 credits)
  • 7510:604 Symphonic Band (repeated for four semesters) (1 credit)
    or
  • 7510:625 Concert Band (repeated for four semesters) (1 credit)
  • 7500:630 Teaching & Literature: Brass Instruments (2 credits)
  • 7500:631 Teaching & Literature: Woodwind Instruments (2 credits)
  • 7500:532 Teaching & Literature: Percussion Instruments (2 credits)
  • 7500:675 Seminar in Music Education (3 credits)
  • 7500:675 Seminar in Music Education (2 credits)
  • 7520:xxx Applied Music (repeated for two semesters) (2 credits)

Degree total: 37 credits

Theory Option

Music Core Courses – 6 credits (to be selected)

  • 7500:555 Advanced Conducting: Instrumental (2 credits)
  • 7500:556 Advanced Conducting: Choral (2 credits)
  • 7500:621 Music History Survey: Middle Ages & Renaissance (2 credits)
  • 7500:622 Music History Survey: Baroque (2 credits)
  • 7500:623 Music History Survey: Classic & Romantic (2 credits)
  • 7500:624 Music History Survey: Music Since 1900 (2 credits)
  • 7500:625 Graduate Bibliography & Research (2 credits)

Major Required Courses – 26-28 credits

  • 7500:615 Musical Styles & Analysis I (Chant through Palestrina) (2 credits)
  • 7500:616 Musical Styles & Analysis II (Baroque through early Beethoven) (2 credits)
  • 7500:617 Musical Styles & Analysis III (Late Beethoven through Mahler/Strauss) (2 credits)
  • 7500:618 Musical Styles & Analysis IV (20th Century) (2 credits)
  • 7500:674 Seminar in Music (must be Schenkerian Analysis) (2 credits)
  • 7500:697 Advanced Problems in Music (8 credits)
  • 7500:699 Masters Thesis/Project (4-6 credits)
  • 7510:6— Ensemble (participation in two ensembles required)* (2 credits)
  • 7520:642 Applied Composition (2 credits)

Additional Music Courses – 0 to 2 credits

Graduate-level (music) workshops, applied music (other than composition), advanced problems, and/or courses to be selected by student and advisor.

Electives – 0 to 2 credits

To be selected by student and advisor. Areas include graduate-level courses in other disciplines in which student obtains permission of instructor or 7520:642 Applied Composition.

Degree total: 34-36 credits